Advantages and Disadvantages of Ternary Li-ion and LiFePO4 Battery?
1. Different Materials.
So-called “ternary lithium” or “lithium iron phosphate” mainly refers to the chemical elements of the power battery “cathode material”.
Ternary lithium: Lithium batteries use lithium nickel cobalt manganate (Li(NiCoMn)O2) ternary cathode material as the cathode material. This material combines the advantages of three materials: lithium cobaltate, lithium nickelate, and lithium manganate, forming a three-phase eutectic system of the three materials, whose overall performance is better than that of any single combination compound due to the ternary synergy effect.
Lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4): Refers to lithium-ion batteries that use lithium iron phosphate as the cathode material. It is characterized by the absence of precious metal elements such as cobalt, the low price of raw materials, and the abundance of phosphorus and iron present in the earth’s resources, so there are no problems with the supply of materials.
2. Different energy densities.
Ternary lithium battery: Due to the use of more active metal elements, the mainstream ternary lithium battery energy density is generally (140wh/kg ~ 160 wh/kg), lower than the high nickel ratio of ternary batteries (160 wh/kg ~ 180 wh/kg); some weight energy density can reach 180Wh- 240Wh/kg.
Lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4): The energy density is generally 90-110 W/kg; in some friendly innovative lithium iron phosphate batteries, such as the blade battery, energy density can reach 120W/kg-140W/kg.
3. Different temperature adaptability.
Ternary lithium battery: Ternary lithium battery has excellent low-temperature performance and can maintain about 70% to 80% of the normal battery capacity at -20 ℃.
Lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4): No low-temperature resistance, when the temperature is below -10 ℃, lithium iron phosphate batteries decay very quickly, lithium iron phosphate batteries in -20 ℃ conditions can only maintain the normal battery capacity of about 50% ~ 60%.
“Lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4)” is more resistant to high temperatures; “Ternary lithium” is more resistant to low temperatures and has a better range in northern areas or in winter.